Questions 12–23 are based on the following draft of an essay.

(Sentence 1) Americans enjoy some of the safest free drinking water on Earth, however spending $15 billion on bottled water in 2006, and consumption is rising (Fishman).

(Sentence 2) While proponents of bottled water tout its health advantages over alternatives such as sugary sodas, environmentalists are concerned about the consequences of bottled-water consumption.

(Sentence 3) It takes 1.5 million barrels of oil a year to make the plastic water bottles Americans use, and the production of these bottles, many of them made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), pollutes the atmosphere (Williams).

(Sentence 4) The manufacture of PET releases hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxides, carbon monoxide, and other harmful substances into the atmosphere.

(Sentence 5) PET is recyclable, and over 85 percent of these bottles end up in landfills, where they can take as long as 1,000 years to degrade (Niman).

(Sentence 6) It is not only the manufacture and disposal of water bottles that contribute to the harm it causes the environment.

(Sentence 7) Water is shipped to the United States from as far away as Fiji on freighters and then hauled in trucks to its destinations.

(Sentence 8) What makes this wasteful practice especially ludicrous is that this luxury commodity is widely available for free.

  1. In context, which of the following versions of the underlined portion of sentence 1 (reproduced below) is best? Americans enjoy some of the safest free drinking water on Earth, however spending $15 billion on bottled water in 2006, and consumption is rising (Fishman). (A) Earth, however spending (B) Earth, yet they spent (C) Earth; but spending (D) Earth; having spent (E) Earth, instead they spend

  2. In context, which of the following is the best revision to sentence 3 (reproduced below)? It takes 1.5 million barrels of oil a year to make the plastic water bottles Americans use, and the production of these bottles, many of them made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), pollutes the atmosphere (Williams). (A) Begin the sentence with “However,”. (B) Begin the sentence with “For one thing,”. (C) Change “It takes” to “They take”. (D) Change “production of these bottles” to “producing such bottles”. (E) Delete “(Williams)” and begin the sentence with “Williams says”.

  3. Which of the following should be done with the underlined portion of sentence 5 (reproduced below)? PET is recyclable, and over 85 percent of these bottles end up in landfills, where they can take as long as 1,000 years to degrade (Niman). (A) Leave it as it is. (B) Change it to “If PET were recyclable, then”. (C) Change it to “True, PET is recyclable, with”. (D) Change it to “In addition, PET is recyclable as”. (E) Change it to “Furthermore, although PET is recyclable,”.

  4. Which of the following versions of the underlined portion of sentence 6 (reproduced below) is best? It is not only the manufacture and disposal of water bottles that contribute to the harm it causes the environment. (A) it caused (B) its having caused (C) causing (D) they cause (E) these bottles, they cause

  5. Which of the following revisions would most emphasize the purpose of sentence 7 (reproduced below)? Water is shipped to the United States from as far away as Fiji on freighters and then hauled in trucks to its destinations. (A) Insert “It is true that” at the beginning of the sentence. (B) Change “as far away as Fiji” to “places like Fiji”. (C) Change “freighters” to “boats” and “trucks” to “vehicles”. (D) Insert “fuel-burning” before “freighters” and “inefficient” before “trucks”. (E) Insert “ships called” before “freighters” and “various” before “destinations”.

  6. Which would be the best place to insert the following sentence? Many of the bottles of water that will be sold to Americans must first be transported from sources all over the world. (A) Immediately after sentence 1 (B) Immediately after sentence 2 (C) Immediately after sentence 4 (D) Immediately after sentence 6 (E) Immediately after sentence 8

  7. Which of the revisions is most needed in sentence below? The San Francisco Chronicle notes that bottled water costs 240 to 10,000 times more than tap water and that “forty percent of bottled water should be labeled bottled tap water because that is exactly what it is.” (A) Add the source of the material quoted in the sentence. (B) Add “money” after “more”. (C) Change “forty” to “40”. (D) Change “costs” to “cost”. (E) Add a colon before the first quotation mark.

  8. Which of the following would be the best sentence with which to end the passage? (A) People mistakenly think bottled water is purer or tastes better than tap water. (B) Many newspapers have recently published stories about environmentalists’ efforts to persuade the public to stop buying bottled water. (C) Clearly, we can all do a lot to eliminate an unnecessary environmental hazard just by turning on the tap instead of buying bottled water. (D) Plastic bottles provide a convenient way to carry water, and people do need to drink extra water in hot weather. (E) While some kinds of bottled water are carbonated, Americans generally prefer noncarbonated brands.

  9. Which of the following would make the most logical title for the passage? (A) Transportation Woes (B) The Problem with Bottled Water (C) Issues of the Environment and Consumption (D) The Benefits of Tap Water Consumption (E) Ways and Means of Saving Energy and Drinking Less

Directions: The following questions test your familiarity with basic research, reference and composition skills. Some questions refer to passages, while other questions are self-contained. For each question,

  1. sloth n. 1. Aversion to work or exertion; laziness, indolence. 2. Any of various slowmoving, arboreal mammals of the family Bradypodidae of South and Central America, having long hooklike claws, by which they hang upside down from tree branches, and feeding on leaves, buds, and fruits, especially: a. A member of the genus Bradypus, having three long-clawed toes on each forefoot. Also called ai, three-toed sloth. b. A member of the genus Choloepus, having two toes on each forefoot. Also called two-toed sloth, unau. 3. A company of bears. See synonyms at flock. [Middle English slowth, from slow, slow.]

Which of the following statements is NOT supported by the definition above? (A) The word “sloth” has both abstract and concrete meanings. (B) One meaning of “sloth” has negative connotations. (C) “Slowth” was a word used in Middle English. (D) All sloths have three long-clawed toes. (E) The word “sloth” can refer to bears.

  1. Wacker, Peter. Virtual Field Trip: New Brunswick Area, Raritan South Bank. Rutgers U Geography Dept., 1997.Web. 8 Dec. 2003. http://geography.rutgers.edu/resources/vrtrip/index.html. In the citation, what information is provided by “8 Dec. 2003”? (A) The date the information was accessed on the Internet (B) The date the virtual field trip was placed on a Web site (C) The date the article on New Brunswick was published in a print journal (D) The last time the Web site showing the virtual field trip was updated (E) The date the virtual field trip was filed with the Rutgers University Geography Department

  2. The following excerpt is taken from a student’s research paper. The principles of the separation of church and state and the right to practice religion freely are both supported by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof” (qtd. in Dye n.p.).

The letters “n.p.” mean that (A) the source has several publication dates (B) no page number for the quotation is available (C) the quotation is from section n.p. of a source by Dye (D) a new paragraph begins here in the quotation (E) the quotation is from section n.p. of the Constitution