Part 1: God
- Self—caused means something of which:
- the essence involves existence, or
- the nature is only conceivable as existent.
- A thing is finite after its kind, when it can be limited by another thing of the same nature.
- For instance, a body is finite because we always conceive another greater body.
- So a thought is limited by another thought, but a body is not limited by thought, nor a thought limited by a body.
- Substance is something in itself and conceived through itself.
- In other words, something of which a conception can be formed independently of any other conception.
- Attribute is something which the intellect perceives as constituting the essence of substance.
- Mode are the modifications of substance, or that which exists in, and is conceived through, something other than itself.
- God means a being absolutely infinite.
- It is a substance consisting in infinite attributes, of which each expresses eternal and infinite essentiality.
- I say absolutely infinite, not infinite after its kind, for infinite attributes may be denied for a thing infinite only after its kind.
- But something absolutely infinite contains in its essence whatever expresses reality and involves no negation.
- A free thing is something:
- that exists solely by the necessity of its own nature
- that does actions which are determined by itself alone.
On the other hand, a thing is necessary, or rather constrained, if it is determined by something external to itself, to a fixed and definite method of existence or action.
- Eternity means existence itself, in so far as it is conceived necessarily to follow solely from the definition of that which is eternal.
- Existence of this kind is conceived as an eternal truth, like the essence of a thing.
- Therefore, it cannot be explained through continuance or time, though continuance may be conceived without a beginning or end.
- Everything which exists, exists either in itself or in something else.
- That which cannot be conceived through anything else must be conceived through itself.
- From a given definite cause, an effect necessarily follows.
- On the other hand, if there is no definite cause, it is impossible that an effect can follow.
- The knowledge of an effect depends on and involves the knowledge of a cause.
- Things which have nothing in common cannot be understood, the one by means of the other.
- The conception of one does not involve the conception of the other.
- A true idea must correspond with its ideate or object.
- If a thing can be conceived as non—existing, its essence does not involve existence.
Proposition 1: Substance is by nature prior to its modifications.
Proposition 2: Two substances, whose attributes are different, have nothing in common.
- For each must exist in itself, and be conceived through itself; in other words, the conception of one does not imply the conception of the other.
Proposition 3:Things which have nothing in common cannot be one the cause of the other.
- Proof: If they have nothing in common, it follows that one cannot be apprehended by means of the other (Axiom 5).
- Therefore, one cannot be the cause of the other (Axiom 4). Q.E.D.
Proposition 4.Two or more distinct things are distinguished one from the other, either by the difference of the attributes of the substances, or by the difference of their modifications. Proof: Everything which exists, exists either in itself or in something else (Axiom 1).
- That is (by Def.3 and 5.), nothing is granted in addition to the understanding, except substance and its modifications.
- Therefore, nothing is given besides the understanding, by which several things may be distinguished one from the other, except the substances, or, in other words (see Axiom 4), their attributes and modifications. Q.E.D.
Proposition 5There cannot exist in the universe two or more substances having the same nature or attribute. Proof: If several distinct substances be granted, they must be distinguished one from the other, either by the difference of their attributes, or by the difference of their modifications (Prop. 4).
- If only by the difference of their attributes, it will be granted that there cannot be more than one with an identical attribute.
- If by the difference of their modifications—as substance is naturally prior to its modifications (Prop. 1),—it follows that setting the modifications aside, and considering substance in itself, that is truly, (Def. 3. and 6), there cannot be conceived one substance different from another,—that is (by Prop. 4), there cannot be granted several substances, but one substance only. Q.E.D.
Proposition 6: One substance cannot be produced by another substance. Proof: It is impossible for two substances to have an identical attribute (Prop. 2).
- Therefore (Prop. 3), one cannot be the cause of the other, neither can one be produced by the other. Q.E.D.
Corollary: It follows that a substance cannot be produced by anything external to itself.
- For in the universe nothing is granted, save substances and their modifications (as appears from Axiom 1 and Def. 3 and 5).
- By the last Proposition, substance cannot be produced by another substance.
- Therefore it cannot be produced by anything external to itself. Q.E.D.
- This is shown still more readily by the absurdity of the contradictory.
- For, if substance be produced by an external cause, the knowledge of it would depend on the knowledge of its cause (Axiom 4), and (by Def. 3) it would itself not be substance.
Proposition 7:Existence belongs to the nature of substances.
Proof: Substance cannot be produced by anything external (Corollary, Prop 6).
- Therefore, it must be its own cause.
- Its essence necessarily involves existence, or existence belongs to its nature.
Every substance is necessarily infinite. Proof: There can only be one substance with an identical attribute, and existence follows from its nature (Prop. 7).
- Therefore, its nature involves existence, either as finite or infinite.
- It does not exist as finite, for (by Def. 2) it would then be limited by something else of the same kind, which would also necessarily exist (Prop. 7).
- and there would be two substances with an identical attribute, which is absurd (Prop. 5).
- It therefore exists as infinite. Q.E.D.
Note 1: Finite existence involves a partial negation.
- Infinite existence is the absolute affirmation of the given nature.
- It follows (solely from Prop. 7) that every substance is necessarily infinite.
Note 2: It will be difficult for those who think about things loosely, and have not been accustomed to know them by their primary causes, to comprehend the demonstration of Prop. 7.
- Such persons make no distinction between the modifications of substances and the substances themselves, and
- are ignorant of how things are produced.
- Hence, they may attribute to substances the beginning which they observe in natural objects.
- Those who are ignorant of true causes, make complete confusion—think that trees might talk just as well as men—that men might be formed from stones as well as from seed; and imagine that any form might be changed into any other.
- So, also, those who confuse the two natures, divine and human, readily attribute human passions to the deity, especially so long as they do not know how passions originate in the mind.
- But if people considered the nature of substance, they would have no doubt about the truth of Prop. 7.
- In fact, this proposition would be a universal axiom, and accounted a truism.
- For, by substance, would be understood that which is in itself, and is conceived through itself—that is, something of which the conception requires not the conception of anything else;
- whereas modifications exist in something external to themselves, and a conception of them is formed by means of a conception of the thing in which they exist.
- Therefore, we may have true ideas of non—existent modifications.
- For, although they may have no actual existence apart from the conceiving intellect, yet their essence is so involved in something external to themselves that they may through it be conceived.
- Whereas the only truth substances can have, external to the intellect, must consist in their existence, because they are conceived through themselves.
- Therefore, for a person to say that he has a clear and distinct—that is, a true—idea of a substance, but that he is not sure whether such substance exists, would be the same as if he said that he had a true idea, but was not sure whether or no it was false (a little consideration will make this plain); or if anyone affirmed that substance is created, it would be the same as saying that a false idea was true—in short, the height of absurdity.
- It must, then, necessarily be admitted that the existence of substance as its essence is an eternal truth.
- We can hence conclude by another process of reasoning—that there is but one such substance.
- I think that this may profitably be done at once; and, in order to proceed regularly with the demonstration, we must premise:
- The true definition of a thing neither involves nor expresses anything beyond the nature of the thing defined. From this it follows that
2. No definition implies or expresses a certain number of individuals, inasmuch as it expresses nothing beyond the nature of the thing defined.
- For instance, the definition of a triangle expresses nothing beyond the actual nature of a triangle: it does not imply any fixed number of triangles.
3. There is necessarily for each individual existent thing a cause why it should exist. 4. This cause of existence must either be contained in the nature and definition of the thing defined, or must be postulated apart from such definition.
- It therefore follows that, if a given number of individual things exist in nature, there must be some cause for the existence of exactly that number, neither more nor less.
- For example, if 20 men exist in the universe (for simplicity's sake, I will suppose them existing simultaneously, and to have had no predecessors), and we want to account for the existence of these 20 men, it will not be enough to show the cause of human existence in general.
- We must also show why there are exactly 20 men, neither more nor less: for a cause must be assigned for the existence of each individual.
- Now this cause cannot be contained in the actual nature of man, for the true definition of man does not involve any consideration of the number 20.
- Consequently, the cause for the existence of these 20 men, and, consequently, of each of them, must necessarily be sought externally to each individual.
- Hence we may lay down the absolute rule, that everything which may consist of several individuals must have an external cause.
- It has been shown already that existence appertains to the nature of substance, existence must necessarily be included in its definition.
- and from its definition alone existence must be deducible.
- But from its definition (as we have shown, notes 2, 3), we cannot infer the existence of several substances; therefore it follows that there is only one substance of the same nature. Q.E.D.