Questions 27-34 are based on the sentences below:
(Sentence 1) Invasive species are plant or animal species that become established in ecosystems where they did not originate.
(Sentence 2) Some blend in harmlessly with native species, but others cause ecological and economic damage.
(Sentence 3) Anotorious example is the zebra mussel, native to Russia, that was first identified in the United States Great Lakes in 1988 (McKee 2003, 141).
(Sentence 4) Scientists believe that the mussels were inadvertently transported to North America in the ballast water of ships.
(Sentence 5) Like many invasive species, zebra mussels threaten the biodiversity of the habitats they invade.
(Sentence 6) Zebra mussels reproduce so quickly and are so hardy that they have suppressed populations of the Great Lakes’ native mussels (Fields 2005, 164) and, along with other invasive species, threaten the Great Lakes’ entire food web.
(Sentence 7) Environmental chemist Mike Murray claims, “As invasive species like zebra mussels overwhelm the Great Lakes, large stretches of the lakes have become underwater deserts.”
(Sentence 8) Although some skeptics dismiss the concern about invasive species as overblown, arguing that the majority of nonnative species cause no harm, many scientists are alarmed by the changes produced by the zebra mussel and other invasive species.
(Sentence 9) The economic damage caused by the zebra mussel has prompted government officials and scientists to seek solutions to this problem.
(Sentence 10) Many industrial facilities use chlorine to clear the mussels from their power and sewage plants.
(Sentence 11) Other facilities use chemicals specifically developed to kill mussels. (12) Unfortunately, both of these methods have certain harmful consequences.
((Sentence 13) An alternative may become available: a bacterium that kills zebra mussels without harming native species.
Which of the following is cited in sentence 3? (A) A newspaper (B) A scientific journal (C) A Web site (D) A book (E) A magazine
The information in parentheses in sentence 6 informs the reader that (A) Fields conducted research in 2005 about how to protect native mussel species (B) information about invasive species other than zebra mussels can be found in a source written by Fields (C) Fields has written a work that provides information about zebra mussels’ effects on native mussel populations (D) the sentence is a direct quote from a work written by Fields (E) information about the impact of invasive species on native aquatic populations can be found on page 2005 of a work by Fields
The author of the passage quotes Murray in sentence 7 most likely in order to (A) provide information about other invasive species in the Great Lakes (B) suggest that scientists have underestimated the damage done to the Great Lakes by zebra mussels (C) point out that invasive species can affect many different kinds of environments (D) emphasize the effects that zebra mussels have had on the Great Lakes ecosystem (E) illustrate the nature of the food web in the Great Lakes
Which is best to do with sentence 7 (reproduced below)? Environmental chemist Mike Murray claims, “As invasive species like zebra mussels overwhelm the Great Lakes, large stretches of the lakes have become underwater deserts.” (A) Leave it as it is. (B) Paraphrase Murray’s comment rather than quote it directly. (C) Add information in parentheses explaining Murray’s claim. (D) Provide Murray’s credentials as a scientist. (E) Add a citation indicating the source of the quotation from Murray.
- Which of the following pieces of information, if added to the second paragraph (sentences 5–9), would most effectively advance the writer’s argument? (A) Biographical information about Mike Murray (B) Information about the life span of the zebra mussel (C) Specific figures to illustrate the economic harm caused by zebra mussels (D) Information about how power and sewage plants are designed (E) A comparison of the revenues generated by commercial fishing and sportfishing in the Great Lakes region
Which of the following best describes the purpose of the final paragraph (sentences 10–13)? (A) It explains why the “skeptics” mentioned in the second paragraph are correct. (B) It points out that the phenomenon introduced in the first paragraph can be easily controlled. (C) It presents information to refute an argument presented in the first paragraph. (D) It elaborates on the causes of a problem presented in the first and second paragraphs. (E) It details various solutions to a problem discussed in the first and second paragraphs.
The final paragraph (sentences 10–13) could best be developed by (A) elaborating on the negative effects of current methods used to control zebra mussels (B) explaining how researchers determined that zebra mussels were brought to North America in the ballast water of ships (C) adding information about differences between zebra mussels and mussel species native to the Great Lakes (D) explaining how the chemicals currently used to control zebra mussels are manufactured (E) adding information about other invasive species in the Great Lakes and the economic damage they cause
- The first item listed in the References section indicates all of the following EXCEPT that (A) “Great Lakes: Resources at risk” is around nine pages long (B) “Great Lakes: Resources at risk” was written by S. Fields (C) “Great Lakes: Resources at risk” appears on page 113 of Environmental Health Perspectives (D) “Great Lakes: Resources at risk” is an article in a periodical (E) Environmental Health Perspectives is published more than once a year