Simplified General Maxims for the Economic Government of an Agricultural Kingdom by Quesnay (Under Construction)

1. Unity of Authority

Let the sovereign authority be superior to all individuals and interests.

2. Let the Nation be instructed as to General Natural Laws, which make a Government more Perfect.

The study of human jurisprudence is not enough to make statesmen.

3. Earth, Agriculture, Sole Source of Riches

Let the sovereign and the nation never lose sight of the fact that the earth is the sole source of all riches, and that it is agriculture which multiplies riches.

4. Let Landed Property and Movable Riches be assured to Those who are the Legitimate Possessors of Them.

For the security of property is the substructure upon which the economic order of society rests.

5. Non-destructive Taxes

The taxes should not be destructive nor disproportionate to the nation's revenue.

Sufficient Investment

The investment of cultivators should be enough to maximize the annual production.

7. Complete Circulation

The total revenues should be annually returned into the entire course of circulation.

8. Favor for Productive Expenditures

The government should favor productive expenditures and the commerce of the land’s products.

9. Preference for Agriculture

Large nations should cultivate their lands.

10. Revenue Expended in the Country

None of the revenue should pass into the home of the stranger without return either in money or merchandise.

11. Evils of Emigration

The government should prevent the desertion of its people who take with them their wealth, to the loss of the nation.

12. Protection of the Person and the Wealth of Agriculturists

Let the children of rich farmers establish themselves in the country so as to perpetuate and preserve husbandry.

13. Freedom of Cultivation

People should be free to cultivate in his own field those products that his interest, his faculties, and the nature of the earth suggest to him will produce the largest possible result.

14. Multiplication of Cattle

Let the raising and multiplication of cattle be favored; for it is they that furnish to the earth the manure that produces the richest harvests.

15. Cultivation Extensive Enough

Let the land employed in the culture of grain be reunited as far as possible to form large farms to be cultivated by rich laborers.

16. No Obstacle to the Exportation of Goods

External commerce of the products of the land should not be arrested nor prevented in any way, for it is the demand, the market, that regulates the production each year.

17. Freedom and Ease in Transportation

Let the means of the transportation of the productions of manual labor be facilitated by repairing roadways, and by the navigation of canals, of rivers, and of the sea ; for the more that is saved in the act of carrying on commerce, so much more is added to the revenue of the territory.

18. Good Prices for Agricultural Products and Merchandise

Let the price of agricultural products and merchandise, in a country, be not lowered ; for then reciprocal commerce with foreign countries would become disadvantageous to the nation. As is the purchasable value of things, so is the revenue. Abundance and no value is not wealth. Dearth and high prices is misery. Abundance and high prices is opulence.

19. Low Prices Are Harmful to the People

Low prices are not profitable to the laboring class.

20. Comfort for the Lowest Classes of Citizens

Let the comfort of the lowest classes of citizens be not diminished; for they must aid in the consumption of products, if reproduction and the revenue of the nation are not to be lessened.

21. Avoid Unfruitful Economy

Let the landlords and those who exercise the lucrative professions not give themselves up to unfruitful economy, for this would cut off from circulation and distribution a portion of their revenue or of their gains.

22. Little or None of the Luxury of Decoration

Let the luxury of decoration not be entertained to the detriment of land culture, or any of the investments and outlays made necessary for subsistence, for the stability of these preserves good prices, the demand for the lands, products, and the production of the nation’s revenue.

23. Reciprocity in Commerce

Let the nation not suffer from loss through reciprocal commerce with other countries even if this commerce were profitable to the merchants, who would gain, regardless of the welfare of fellow-citizens, in the sale of commodities thus brought about The accumulations of the fortunes of these merchants would create a curtailment in the circulation of revenue prejudicial to distribution and reproduction.

24. Balance of Money in Trade is Illusory

Let no one be deceived by an apparent advantage in reciprocal commerce with foreign countries, which is simply a balance received in money, without examining and comparing the profits that result from the merchandise one has sold and the merchandise which has been bought. For often the loss is to that nation which receives a surplus in money. And that loss reacts to the prejudice of the distribution and reproduction of the revenues.

25. Complete Liberty in Commerce

Let there be complete liberty in commerce; for the surest, most exact, and most profitable policy for interior and exterior commerce of the state and nation consists in the greatest possible freedom in competition.

26. Attention to the Revenue Rather Than to Population

Let there be less attention given to the augmentation of the population than to the accumulation of revenue, for greater freedom or ease in procuring large revenues is preferable to the greater pressing wants of subsistence, created by a population, and which exceed the revenue ; and the resources are greater for the needs of a state when a people are in comfort, and there are also more means to make agriculture prosperous.

27. No Economization of the Necessary Public Expenditures

Let the government occupy itself with those operations necessary for the prosperity of the kingdom rather than with attention toward expenditures; for with greater riches the larger expenses will cease to appear so excessive. But one should not confound a perversion of funds with simple expenses, for such a perversion can dissipate all the riches of a nation and of the sovereign.

28. No Pecuniary Fortunes in the Administration of Taxes

Let the administration of the finances be in the tax collection, not in the expenses of the government, nor occasion pecuniary fortunes that take away a portion of the revenue from circulation, distribution and reproduction.

29. Credit of Financiers, Harmful Resource

Let no one hope for resources, to meet the extraordinary needs of a state, but in the prosperity of the nation, and not in the credit of financiers; for pecuniary fortunes are clandestine riches that know not king nor country.

30. Borrowing Always Injurious

Let the state avoid loans formed of the funds of financiers, for they burden a state with devouring debts, occasion a commerce or traffic of the finances, through the agency of negotiable paper, and where the rebate or discount augments more and more the unfruitful pecuniary fortunes. These fortunes separate money from agriculture and deprive the country of the necessary riches for the improvement of real estate and the exploitation of agriculture.