The productive expenses are employed in agriculture, mines, fishing, etc. to perpetuate riches in the form of grain, beverages, wood, cattle, raw materials, etc.
The sterile expenses are made on handicraft products, housing, clothing, interest on money, servants, commercial expenses, foreign commodities, etc.
The sale of the Cultivator's net product in the preceding year, through the annual Advances of 600 livres employed in agriculture by the Farmer, gives the proprietor a revenue of 600 livres.
The annual advances of 300 livres in sterile expenses are employed for:
the capital and the expenses of commerce
the purchase of raw materials
the subsistence and other needs of the artisan until he has sold his product.
Of the 600 livres of revenue:
1/2 is spent by the Proprietor on purchases from the productive class, such as bread, wine, meat, etc.,
the other 1/2 on purchases from the sterile class, such as clothing, furnishings, implements, etc.
These expenditures may go more to the sterile class if the spender goes for luxury, or to the productive class, if he goes for subsistence.
We assume that his expenses create the same revenue annually.
But it is easy to see, through the table, how the annual revenue would change if the spending went more towards the sterile expenditures or the productive expenditures.
If the spending for luxury increases by 16% for the Proprietor, 16% for the Artisan, and 16% for the Cultivator, their total revenue would fall from 600 livres to 500 livres.
If instead, 16% was increased in their consumption or exportation of raw materials, their total revenue would rise from 600 livres to 700 livres, and so on.
Thus, an excess of luxury in the way of decoration may quickly ruin with magnificence an opulent Nation.
The 300 livres of revenue devoted to productive expenditures in the table bring back money to this productive class which reproduce 300 livres net.
This makes up a part of the reproduction of the Proprietor's revenue.
And by the distribution of the remaining sums which return to this same class, the total revenue is reproduced yearly.
These 300 livres which initially return to the productive class through the sale of the products which the Proprietor buys of them, are spent by the Farmer.
Half is spent on the consumption of products furnished by this same class
The other half is spent on clothing, implements, tools, etc. which he buys of the sterile class.
And they arise again with the net product.
The 300 livres of the Proprietor's revenue which were devoted to sterile expenditures are spent by the artisan.
1/2 is spent on productive expenditures in the purchase of subsistence, raw materials, and for foreign commerce;
The other 1/2 is distributed among the sterile class itself for living expenses, and to restore the advances.
This circulation and this reciprocal distribution continues by subdivisions in the same order, down to the last penny of the sums which pass reciprocally from one class of expenditures to the other class of expenditures.
Circulation brings 600 livres to the sterile class,.
300 livres is deducted from this for the annual advances.
It leaves 300 livres for wages.
These wages are equal to the 300 livres which this class receives from the productive class, and the advances are equal to the 300 livres of revenue which go to this same sterile class.
The productions of the other class amount to 1200 livres, after deducting taxes, tithes, and interest on the advances of the Husbandman.
These will be considered separately to avoid complications in analyzing the expenditures.
In the expenditure of the 1200 livres of production:
the Proprietor of the revenue buys 300 livres of them.
Another 300 livres goes to the sterile class.
150 livres from this is consumed for subsistence by this sterile class.
the other 150 livres is sent to foreign commerce by this sterile class.
300 livres are consumed in the productive class, by the men who produce them, and
300 livres for feeding and care of the cattle.
Thus of the 1200 livres of product this class expends 600 livres.
Its advances of 600 livres are returned to it in money through the sales which it makes to the Proprietor and to the sterile class.
12.5% of the total product enters into foreign commerce, either as exports or for raw materials and subsistence for the workers of the country who sell their products to the other Nations.
The sales of the Merchant balance the purchases of merchandise and of gold and silver which are obtained from abroad.
Such is the distributive order of the consumption of the native products among the citizens,
Such is the idea we should have of the practice and the extent of the foreign commerce of a flourishing agricultural Nation.
The reciprocal traffic of one class with the other distributes the revenue of 600 livres from one side to the other.
It gives 300 livres to each side, over and above the advances which are conserved.
The Proprietor subsists through the 600 livres which he spends.
The 300 livres distributed to each class, added to the product of the taxes, the tithe, etc., which are added to them, can support a man in one or the other class:
thus 600 livres of revenue and the supplementary sums can furnish subsistence to three heads of families.
On this basis, 600 millions of revenue can furnish subsistence to 3 million families of four persons of all ages each.
The expenses furnished by the annual advances of the productive class add 300 millions of expenditures
These expenses are renewed each year.
Around half of this is spent on food for the cattle
The other half is spent in paying wages to workers of this class
These furnish subsistence for another million heads of families with the part of the other products added to them.
Thus these 900 millions, which, not counting taxes, tithes, and the interest on the annual advances and on the original advances of the Husbandman, would be renewed annually from the landed property, could furnish subsistence to 16 million people according to this order of circulation and distribution of the annual revenues.
Circulation means the purchases at first hand, paid for out of the revenue which is distributed among all the classes of men, excepting commerce, which multiplies purchases and sales without multiplying things, and which is only an increase of sterile expenditures.
The riches of the productive class of a Nation where the Proprietors of the land have constantly 600 millions of revenue are:
A revenue of 600 millions for the Proprietors assumes in addition 300 millions in taxes, and 150 millions for the tithe of the annual product, including all the charges, levied on those subject to the tithe:
This makes a total of 1.05 billion, including the revenue:
In addition there are the reproduction of 1.05 billion of annual advances, etc and 110 millions of interest on these advances at 10 per 100: making a grand total of 2.21 billion livres.
In a kingdom having many vineyards, forests, meadows, etc. there would be only about 2/3 of these 2.21 billion which would be obtained by the labor of the plow.
This part would require, in a good State of large-scale cultivation carried on by horses, the employment of 333,334 plows at no acres of land per plow, 333,334 men to direct them, and 40 million acres of land.
This culture may, with 5 or 6 billions of advances, be extended in France to more than 60 million acres.
We do not mean the small-scale cultivation carried on with oxen.
With oxen, more than 1 million plows would be needed, and 2 million men to exploit 40 million acres of land.
It would yield only 2/5 as much as large-scale cultivation does.
This small-scale cultivation is caused by the lack of riches to make the original advances.
It is carried on at the expense of the landed property itself.
The land is employed mostly for the expenses for the subsistence of the many men doing this form of cultivation.
This expense absorbs almost all the product.
This ungrateful cultivation reveals the poverty and ruin of the Nations where it prevails.
It has nothing to do with the order of the Table.
The order is arranged on the basis of half of the employment of a plow, where the annual advances can, in conjunction with the fund of original advances, produce 100%.
The total original advances required for the establishment of a plow in large-scale cultivation, for the first fund for the purchase of cattle, tools, seed, food, up-keep, wages, etc, in the course of two years' work before the first harvest, are estimated at 1,000 livres;
Thus the total for 333,334 plows is 3,333,340/200 livres. (See the articles Farms, Farmers, Grains, in the Encyclopedie.)
The interest on these advances should amount to at least 10 per 100, for the products of agriculture are exposed to ruinous accidents, which in ten years destroy the value of at least one year's crop.
These advances demand, moreover, much up-keep and renewals; hence the total of interest on the original advances for establishing the Husbandmen is 333, 322,000 livres.
The meadows, vineyards, ponds, forests, etc. require slight original advances on the part of the Farmers.
The value of these advances may be reduced, including the original expenses for plantings and other work done at the expense of the Proprietors, to 1,000,000,000 livres.
But vineyards and gardens require large annual advances.
These advances, which, taken in connection with those of the other parts, may on the average be included in the total of annual advances above.
The total annual reproduction in net product, in annual advances with the interest thereon, and' in interest on the original advances, reckoned in conformity with the order of the table, is 2,543,322,000 livres.
The territory of France could produce much more.
Of this sum of 2,543,322,000 livres, 525 millions constitute half of the reproduction of the annual advances employed in feeding the cattle.
It leaves 2,018,322,000 livres:
if all taxes go back into circulation, and
if they do not encroach upon the advances of the Husbandmen
This makes, FOR THE EXPENDITURE OF MEN, on the average 504,580,500 livres for each million heads of families, or for each head of a family 562 livres, which accidents reduce to about 530 livres.
In this case:
a State is rich
men live comfortably
Such an opulent Nation has territory and revenue which yield annually 1.05 billion of net product
But all these riches kept up successively by this annual product can be destroyed in the decadence of an agricultural Nation, by the mere wasting away of the productive advances.
This can happen in a short time due to eight causes:
A bad system of taxation which encroaches on the advances of the Cultivators.
Noli me tangere is the motto of these advances.
Increase of taxes through expensive collection
Excess of luxurious expenditure on decoration
Excess of expenses for litigation
Lack of foreign trade in the produce of the land
Lack of freedom in domestic trade in:
native commodities and
Personal vexations of the rural inhabitants
Failure of the annual net product to return to the productive class