In the beginnings of society, all public offices were performed by the magistrate without any reward.

Only voluntary presents are accepted.

  • When government becomes so complex as to take up the whole attention of the public magistrate, he must have some reward.
  • When applications are made, everyone must bring his present.
  • When government is a little further advanced:

  • Consequently, a public revenue levied.
  • The same was the case with our feudal lords.
  • The governors of provinces made such grievous exactions from the people.

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    Next: Part 3, Chapter 1