Here are some background information for readers that might not be familiar with the concepts of karma and dharma
In my previous papers, I pointed out that Smith was one of the few Western intellectuals to hint at the concept of dharma, or the natural and sustainable activities of humans, and apply it both for moral and economic purporses. Instead of the word dharma, however, he named his concept the invisible hand, which in The Wealth of Nations had economic applications and, in The Theory of Moral Sentiments had moral applications.
The main difference between Smith's invisible hand and Eastern dharma is that the former has moral, spiritual, and practical uses, while the latter emphasizes only its moral and spiritual use. Eastern philosophers did not dare teach the practical use of dharma because they knew that it would merely imprison the mind to the physical dimension through the seduction of physical utility or pleasure*. Smith, on the other hand, taught the invisible hand in order to drive economic growth in order to create utility through commerce, investment, and employment. As expected, people who came after Smith, such as Ricardo, Mill, and Say, took his ideas and went full steam ahead with utility by creating the system of Capitalism. Unfortunately, they also dropped the moral safeguards laid by Smith who actually denounced utility-based moral systems, calling them as 'licentious systems'.
Of course, the flaw in Mill's philosophy is that personal happiness is subjective. If pursued without thinking of others, then it becomes arbitrary. It might bring happiness to a rich country to invade a poorer country for oil as the former would think that it would bring happiness and progress to both countries. Or it might bring happiness to terrorists to attack a rich, extravagant country thinking that it would bring both closer to simplicity and austerity which are foundations for religious happiness (For example, Jesus himself said it will be difficult for the rich to enter the Kingdom of God).
Utilitarianism is useful only when one is alone, but creates problems when one comes into society, as people have diverse experiences, opinions, and moral standards. Smith's invisible hand, on the contrary, works both personally by tapping into one's conscience, or "the man within the breast", and socially by knowing one's interests.
* The corruption by Mill, and later Samuelson, of the science of wealth started by Smith vindicates the stand of the Asian philosophers in not explaining advanced metaphysical concepts because humans are egotistic and will likely corrupt the enlightened principles as to make them serve the self. Instead, Asians purposely wrap such concepts in complex jargon and religious sounding nonesense. Our workaround to this problem is to code the concepts directly into the logic of our apps and machine learning algorithms (which are not understandable to ordinary people). This keeps a powerful tool away from humans until they can grow the needed fellow-feeling.
The first reason is because Say and Mill lived during the start and the height of the Industrial Revolution which lasted from 1760 to 1840. The increase in productivity increased the number and variety of products available for use or utility and for satisfying the senses which were not available before. Thus, utility and all its shallow and short-term benefits came to dominate the field of morality.
Another more important reason is because both dharma and the invisible hand are naturally invisible or not obvious to shallow observation. Both can only be seen by highly-penetrating and highly-evolved minds that can look far beyond the obvious. In Hinduism, the concept of dharma naturally leads to the concept of karma. This is because everything in existence has dharma or its own nature to sustain its very existence. Anything without dharma, or without the propensity to sustain its own existence, will immediately cease to exist. Thus, every existing thing must have its own dharma.
There is an absolute beauty and an absolute good. This absolute is the essence of each. The ideas are known but not seen. The sight is for seeing the visible things. Sight is by far the most costly and complex piece of workmanship which the creator of the senses ever contrived. The ear or voice does not need any third or additional nature for it to hear and for the other to be heard. The same is true of most, if not all, the other senses. None of them requires such an addition.
But without the addition of some other nature, there is no seeing or being seen. Anyone who wants to see will see colours unless there be a third nature, as light, specially adapted to the purpose. Without this third nature, the eyes will see nothing and the colours will be invisible.The Simple Republic by Plato
The purpose of existence is to gain the experience of existence, and this denotes action, which is called karma in Sanskrit. As all action in existence produces a reaction, the word karma actually combines both action and reaction in one concept. However, karma when used nowadays, commonly refers only to reaction, usually a bad one. In English, karma is loosely translated as "What goes around, comes around," or when viewed from a purely physical perspective, it solidifies as Newton's Third Law, which automatically combines both action and reaction into one idea or concept.
Since karma is universal and timeless, it works the same way regardless of time and location, whether in the distant past, distant future, or in a very distant place. Selfish actions always and everywhere bring about something hurtful, or opposite of what was intended, in the long-run or even short-run:
At first sight, no doubt, the monopoly of the great commerce of America naturally seems to be an acquisition of the highest value. To the undiscerning eye of giddy ambition, it naturally presents itself amidst the confused scramble of politics and war as a very dazzling object to fight for. The dazzling splendour of the object, however, the immense greatness of the commerce, is the very quality which renders the monopoly of it hurtful..Even the regulations by which each nation endeavours to secure to itself the exclusive trade of its own colonies are frequently more hurtful to the countries in favour of which they are established than to those against which they are established.
The unjust oppression of the industry of other countries falls back, if I may say so, upon the heads of the oppressors, and crushes their industry more than it does that of those other countries."
The industry of the country, therefore, is thus turned away from a more to a less advantageous employment (Because of the monopoly of the home market); and the exchangeable value of its annual produce, instead of being increased, according to the intention of the lawgiver, must necessarily be diminished by every such regulation.
History is full of examples of narrow-minded economic policies going back to hurt the intended beneficiaries or producing opposite effects. The best modern examples are the tariffs of the 1930's contributing to the Great Depression and the credit derivatives of the 90's leading to the Great Recession. Another more recent example is the Greek debt crisis where massive government spending, which was thought to draw in future investors, actually plunged Greece into a crisis. Those policies were created to increase wealth rapidly, but ended up destroying it.
Karma will eventually impose itself on every wrong policy because Nature has its own agenda or plan for creation and existence, which is called dharma or the Tao in Eastern philosophy. Going off or away from this from plan forces Nature to push back as consequence. The key to not being pushed around by karma is to know the plan of Nature and flow with it.
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